Globalisation is associated with a range of seemingly conflicting notions, from integration of economy to political and cultural systems across the Globe and from being a major force of human development and prosperity to environmental devastation and exploitation to conflicts. Evolutionary approach of globalisation explains the emergence of institutions like worldwide trade and trans national enterprises, position of global leadership and role of global governance and seeks to bring into life the evolving global system. Another aspect of globalisation being connectivity to openness in terms of national system, trade flows, capital movements, travel and migrations do indeed make the world more inter-dependent. In recent years, constructivists emphasise on the possibility of usefulness of the concept of resurgence of supra/ super national organisations – be it NGO/ MNCs or IGOs like UN rather than nation states. Nation states are supposed to be the systems of organisation in which people with common identity live inside a country with firm borders and single government. Nation state is assisting of political, geographic and cultural organisation. The idea that people of a nation are connected to each other is nationalism. The characteristics of nation states are expected to be population, sovereignty, government and territory.
Evolutionary interpretation by George Modelski looks at the process of globalisation, explaining how by 2080 there would be “global governance”. Modelski essentially takes the top-down approach while considering democratisation, global economy and world opinion. Whereas, Vincent S. E. Falger takes bottomsup approach using evolutionary theory and emphasises on the resurgence of realism with ingroup-outgroup conflicts. Whereas, both the theorists state better inter-connectivity and integration.
Stewart Patric brings in the material structure and static description to explain the source of state behaviour.
The evolutionary theory, however, emphasises on ever changing state behaviour. The following is worth noting at this juncture:
- After 43 years in an European Union, on June 23rd, 2016, UK has affected BREXIT.
- An isolationist, nationalist candidate gains lead in US Presidential Election.
- Trans Atlantic Trade and Investment partnership would be on the ropes without London’s participation.
- UNSC reforms are as yet not affected. Hence, a large part of the world remains un-represented.
- “New right” movement in Germany taking shape.
- Immigration problems in Greece, Turkey still remains unresolved
- Effluent treatment.
- Cooling tower water treatment.
- Biogas generation enhancement.
- Chemical processes
This clearly indicates the resurgence of new contours of nationalism. The evolutionary theory looks at “path dependence” and therefore, norm change. In order to ensure fitness, the norms could be developed and cooperation could be ensured. The challenge now is to establish order as per the co-operative strategies suggested by Robert Axelrod and Thomas Schelling and the agenda for Globalisation is to forward the institutional strengthening while understanding the struggle for identity and resurgent nationalism. This phenomena needs to be understood from socio – cultural – material perspective. The evolutionary theory of Global politics essentially calls for order through adaptation.
Prof. Rajiv Gupte is Professor: Management Studies and is a frequent contributor in Strategic Studies, Geopolitics and International Relations.This information was first gleaned from the portal Indiafirst@googlegroups.com. The technology could be exploited successfully in military stations, cantonments, and in the forward areas in supplying safe drinking water as well as in solid waste management. This is neither an advertisement nor an endorsement of the product. It however appears exciting and could prove beneficial to the security forces in providing a cleaner and safer environment, which is why it is covered here. Editor.
HyCator® Reactor System
The Armed Forces and other security forces are deployed across the length and breadth of the country, many such places being in remote areas where civic facilities are either minimal or non existent. From the deserts in the West to the high mountainous regions in J&K and Arunachal Pradesh, and spreading across the Myanmar and Bangladesh borders, it is the Armed Forces, the Para Military Forces and the CAPF which are at the forefront of guarding the nation. Some of the challenges faced by the personnel on the ground are providing safe drinking water from bore wells in remote areas and effluent pretreatment in military stations and cantonments. Technology could perhaps be a game changer in this respect.
What is the Hycator System?
This is an innovation which can now be retrofitted in a bore-well handpump( any make) to directly give 99+ percent microbe freewater with zero operating costs! This cost effective “fit and forget” equipment could be a gamechanger and would help in eliminating water borne diseases from all underserved areas including in disaster management. It is a new technology which has application in the following fields:
The HyCator Reactor System makes an order of magnitude overall efficiency improvement in a cost effective and environmentally friendly way for applications ranging from effluent treatment, cooling tower water treatment, biogas generation enhancement to chemical processes. It consists of standalone, custom designed, skid mounted units which can be retrofitted into existing setups with minimum pipeline modification and with no plant stoppage. The technology allows it to harness energy dissipated by collapsing cavitation bubbles to accelerate chemical reactions, breakdown complex molecules and particles, do uniform mixing/blending apart from other applications across industries ranging from effluent treatment to petrochemicals… wherever we encounter flowing fluids or slurries. HyCa’s core innovation is the HyCatorReactor System design algorithm that allows it’s reactors to create targeted cavitation bubbles required for the specific needs of the process.
HyCator reactor is inspired by biomimicry. In nature, a snapping shrimp(Alpheidae) attacks its prey by hydrodynamic cavitation… by shooting a jet of water by snapping its claw which causes cavitation bubbles to form. (Bernoulli’s principle). In a flowing fluid or slurry when the ambient pressure goes below the vapour pressure, a cavitation void or “bubbles” form. On recovery of the ambient pressure, this bubble collapses with an intense localised energy release, which has temperatures to the extent of several thousand degrees, pressures of several hundred bars and intense turbulence. These bubbles are made to travel in a particular direction, to a particular distance, grow to a particular size and then collapse in such a way that at every point of a flowing fluid inside the reactor, a bubble is collapsing to create precise conditions for modulating physical, chemical and biological transformations.
The cost of the water treatment device for bore wells is about INR 4000 only. A live demo of the bore-well handpump fitted with the reactor can be seen at Mumbai. Mr Anjan Mukherjee and his team can be contacted at HyCa Technologies Pvt Ltd, 176, Udyog Bhavan, Sonawala Rd, Goregaon(E), Mumbai, 400063 and on email at email@example.com. The Forces would probably find it useful for bore wells and for effluent pre-treatment in military stations and cantonments.